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It was a case of keep calm and carry on in Catalonia yesterday - no civil disobedience by civil servants and no widespread protests despite the wealthy region now coming under the direct control of Madrid. It appeared that another chapter in the long history of Catalonia was slowly closing, just a month after the so-called illegal referendum on independence. Elections will be taking place in December and the pro-independence government, under threat of arrest, appear to have disappeared. So does this mean that the crisis in Catalonia is effectively over? Probably not over but probably entering into its final phases.

A protest by half-a-million people through the streets of Barcelona on Sunday calling for unity with Spain just underlined how divided the region really is. Madrid always had the trump cards but it will be interesting to see whether the pro-independence former Catalan government have really done their cause any favours. They certainly made a point by declaring independence but at the same time they never really took into account that a sizable proportion of Catalonia wants to stay part of Spain. If Madrid can take control over the region until the elections in December, then it will be a victory for Mariano Rajoy. But as I have said in this space on numerous occasions, half the population of Catalonia wants independence. The new regional government will have to rule for all, not just one side.